Techniques for Establishing Validity - The following resource provides links to techniques for establishing credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability in qualitative research. Believe it or Not: This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Establishing Validity in Qualitative Research The following module discusses reliability and validity in qualitative research, with an emphasis on establishing credibility and transferability.
Define and reliability and validity in qualitative research. Discuss the importance of establishing validity. List strategies used by researchers to improve reliability and validity. In order to withstand the scrutiny, researchers should spend time giving serious consideration to the following four aspects: Credibility - Often called internal validity, refers to the believability and trustworthiness of the findings.
This depends more on the richness of the data gathered than on the quantity of data. The participants of the study are the only ones that decide if the results actually reflect the phenomena being studied and therefore, it is important that participants feel the findings are credible and accurate.
Triangulation is a commonly used method for verifying accuracy that involves cross-checking information from multiple perspectives. The link in Resources Links on the left describes different types of triangulation methods.
Transferability - Often called external validity, refers to the degree that the findings of the research can be transferred to other contexts by the readers. This means that the results are generalizable and can be applied to other similar settings, populations, situations and so forth. Researchers should thoroughly describe the context of the research to assist the reader in being able to generalize the findings and apply them appropriately.
Dependability - Otherwise known as reliability, refers to the consistency with which the results could be repeated and result in similar findings.
The dependability of the findings also lends legitimacy to the research method. Because the nature of qualitative research often results in an ever changing research setting and changing contexts, it is important that researcher document all aspects of any changes or unexpected occurrences to further explain the findings.
This is also important for other researchers who may want to replicate the study. Confirmability - A measure of the objectivity used in evaluating the results, describes how well the research findings are supported by the actual data collected when examined by other researchers.
Researchers bring their own unique perspectives to the research process and data interpretation can be somewhat subjective in qualitative research. Human judgment can vary wildly between observers , and the same individual may rate things differently depending upon time of day and current mood. This means that such experiments are more difficult to repeat and are inherently less reliable.
Reliability is a necessary ingredient for determining the overall validity of a scientific experiment and enhancing the strength of the results. Debate between social and pure scientists, concerning reliability, is robust and ongoing. Validity encompasses the entire experimental concept and establishes whether the results obtained meet all of the requirements of the scientific research method.
For example, there must have been randomization of the sample groups and appropriate care and diligence shown in the allocation of controls. Internal validity dictates how an experimental design is structured and encompasses all of the steps of the scientific research method.
Even if your results are great, sloppy and inconsistent design will compromise your integrity in the eyes of the scientific community. Internal validity and reliability are at the core of any experimental design. External validity is the process of examining the results and questioning whether there are any other possible causal relationships.
Control groups and randomization will lessen external validity problems but no method can be completely successful. This is why the statistical proofs of a hypothesis called significant , not absolute truth. Any scientific research design only puts forward a possible cause for the studied effect. There is always the chance that another unknown factor contributed to the results and findings. This extraneous causal relationship may become more apparent, as techniques are refined and honed.
If you have constructed your experiment to contain validity and reliability then the scientific community is more likely to accept your findings. Eliminating other potential causal relationships, by using controls and duplicate samples, is the best way to ensure that your results stand up to rigorous questioning.
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Moreover, validity can also be divided into five types: 1. Face Validity is the most basic type of validity and it is associated with a highest level of 2. Construct Validity relates to assessment of suitability of measurement tool to measure 3. Criterion-Related Validity .
In general, VALIDITY is an indication of how sound your research is. More specifically, validity applies to both the design and the methods of your research. Validity in data collection means that your findings truly represent the phenomenon you are claiming to measure. Valid claims are solid claims.
Internal validity dictates how an experimental design is structured and encompasses all of the steps of the scientific research method. Even if your results are great, sloppy and inconsistent design will compromise your integrity in the eyes of the scientific community. Different methods vary with regard to these two aspects of validity. Experiments, because they tend to be structured and controlled, are often high on internal validity. In contrast, observational research may have high external validity (generalizability) because it has taken place in the real world. Relationship between reliability.
Construct validity (CV) defines how well a test or experiment measures up to its claims. CV is used and particularly important in social sciences, psychology, psychometrics and language education. When we think about validity in research, most of us think about research components. We might say that a measure is a valid one, or that a valid sample was drawn, or that the design had strong validity.