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Research Methodology

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She may design another experiment to isolate the variable of verbal acuity, by controlling for everything else. This may eventually help her arrive at a new hypothesis: The researcher will then evaluate any apparent problems with the experiment. This involves critically evaluating any weaknesses and errors in the design, which may have influenced the results. Even strict, ' true experimental ,' designs have to make compromises, and the researcher must be thorough in pointing these out, justifying the methodology and reasoning.

For example, when drawing conclusions, the researcher may think that another causal effect influenced the results, and that this variable was not eliminated during the experimental process.

A refined version of the experiment may help to achieve better results, if the new effect is included in the design process. In the global warming example, the researcher might establish that carbon dioxide emission alone cannot be responsible for global warming. They may decide that another effect is contributing, so propose that methane may also be a factor in global warming.

A new study would incorporate methane into the model. The next stage is to evaluate the advantages and benefits of the research. In medicine and psychology, for example, the results may throw out a new way of treating a medical problem, so the advantages are obvious. In some fields, certain kinds of research may not typically be seen as beneficial, regardless of the results obtained.

Ideally, researchers will consider the implications of their research beforehand, as well as any ethical considerations. Would it really benefit anyone to know that the ambidextrous are less likely to have a high verbal acuity?

However, all well-constructed research is useful, even if it only strengthens or supports a more tentative conclusion made by prior research. The final stage is the researcher's recommendations based on the results, depending on the field of study. This area of the research process is informed by the researcher's judgement, and will integrate previous studies.

A researcher could make suggestions for refinement of the experimental design, or highlight interesting areas for further study. This final piece of the paper is the most critical, and pulls together all of the findings into a coherent agrument. The area in a research paper that causes intense and heated debate amongst scientists is often when drawing conclusions. Sharing and presenting findings to the scientific community is a vital part of the scientific process. It is here that the researcher justifies the research, synthesizes the results and offers them up for scrutiny by their peers.

As the store of scientific knowledge increases and deepens, it is incumbent on researchers to work together. Long ago, a single scientist could discover and publish work that alone could have a profound impact on the course of history.

Today, however, such impact can only be achieved in concert with fellow scientists. The key to drawing a valid conclusion is to ensure that the deductive and inductive processes are correctly used, and that all steps of the scientific method were followed. Even the best-planned research can go awry, however. Part of interpreting results also includes the researchers putting aside their ego to appraise what, if anything went wrong.

Has anything occurred to warrant a more cautious interpretation of results? If your research had a robust design, questioning and scrutiny will be devoted to the experiment conclusion, rather than the methods. Researchers are interested in identifying new microbial species that are capable of breaking down cellulose for possible application in biofuel production.

They collect soil samples from a particular forest and create laboratory cultures of every microbial species they discover there. Read the following conclusions below and decide which of them is the most sound:. They conclude that there are no microbes that can break down cellulose. They conclude that the sampled microbes are not capable of breaking down cellulose in a lab environment within 24 hours. They conclude that all the species are related somehow.

They conclude that these microbes are not useful in the biofuel industry. The most appropriate conclusion is number 2. As you can see, sound conclusions are often a question of not extrapolating too widely, or making assumptions that are not supported by the data obtained.

Even conclusion number 2 will likely be presented as tentative, and only provides evidence given the limits of the methods used. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Retrieved Sep 10, from Explorable. It affects what you can say about the cause and factors influencing the phenomenon. It is also important to choose a research method which is within the limits of what the researcher can do. Time, money, feasibility, ethics and availability to measure the phenomenon correctly are examples of issues constraining the research.

Choosing the scientific measurements are also crucial for getting the correct conclusion. Some measurements might not reflect the real world, because they do not measure the phenomenon as it should. To test a hypothesis , quantitative research uses significance tests to determine which hypothesis is right.

The significance test can show whether the null hypothesis is more likely correct than the research hypothesis. Research methodology in a number of areas like social sciences depends heavily on significance tests. A significance test may even drive the research process in a whole new direction, based on the findings.

The t-test also called the Student's T-Test is one of many statistical significance tests, which compares two supposedly equal sets of data to see if they really are alike or not. The t-test helps the researcher conclude whether a hypothesis is supported or not.

Drawing a conclusion is based on several factors of the research process, not just because the researcher got the expected result.

It has to be based on the validity and reliability of the measurement, how good the measurement was to reflect the real world and what more could have affected the results.

Anyone should be able to check the observation and logic, to see if they also reach the same conclusions. Errors of the observations may stem from measurement-problems, misinterpretations, unlikely random events etc.

A common error is to think that correlation implies a causal relationship. This is not necessarily true. Generalization is to which extent the research and the conclusions of the research apply to the real world. It is not always so that good research will reflect the real world, since we can only measure a small portion of the population at a time.

Validity refers to what degree the research reflects the given research problem, while Reliability refers to how consistent a set of measurements are. A definition of reliability may be "Yielding the same or compatible results in different clinical experiments or statistical trials" the free dictionary. Research methodology lacking reliability cannot be trusted. Replication studies are a way to test reliability. Both validity and reliability are important aspects of the research methodology to get better explanations of the world.

Logically, there are two types of errors when drawing conclusions in research:. Type 1 error is when we accept the research hypothesis when the null hypothesis is in fact correct. Type 2 error is when we reject the research hypothesis even if the null hypothesis is wrong.

Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Oskar Blakstad Mar 10, Retrieved Sep 14, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.

You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. Want the full version to study at home, take to school or just scribble on? Whether you are an academic novice, or you simply want to brush up your skills, this book will take your academic writing skills to the next level. Don't have time for it all now?

No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Login Sign Up Privacy Policy. Share this page on your website: Key Concepts of the Scientific Method There are several important aspects to research methodology.

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In the CONCLUSION to your report, you do a number of important things. Summarize the main points you made in your introduction and review of the literature; Review (very briefly) the research methods and/or design you employed.

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Sample study - Methodology, Analysis, and Conclusion Chapters 1. CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY Introduction Research Design Research Purpose Research Approach Research Strategy Population and Sampling Design Population The population of a study basically refers to the total number .

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HOW TO WRITE THESIS CONCLUSION Sajadin Sembiring,, Conclusion Writing is difficult Writing takes time When done well, writing is fun Whatever you do next, writing is useful CONCLUDING REMARKS When you write a thesis/paper, put yourself into the position of the reader. Whichever reasoning processes and research methods were used, the final conclusion is critical, determining success or failure. If an otherwise excellent experiment is summarized by a weak conclusion, the results will not be taken seriously. For example, when drawing conclusions, the researcher may think that another causal .

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Chapter Conclusion. The process of research can be painstakingly time consuming. This book will look at each of the areas discussed in this chapter in more detail and provide an overview of research methods. The goal is to give you a solid understanding of the different types of research, ideas for completing your own research, and a method. The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable.