Banking crises have developed many times throughout history when one or more risks have emerged for a banking sector as a whole. Prominent examples include the bank run that occurred during the Great Depression , the U. Savings and Loan crisis in the s and early s, the Japanese banking crisis during the s, and the sub-prime mortgage crisis in the s.
Assets of the largest 1, banks in the world grew by 6. Growth in assets in adverse market conditions was largely a result of recapitalization. The United States has the most banks in the world in terms of institutions 5, as of and possibly branches 81, as of Japan had banks and 12, branches.
Between and banks engaged in around 28, mergers or acquisitions, either as the aqcuirer or the target company. The overall known value of these deals cumulates to around 5, bil. Here is a list of the largest deals in history in terms of value with participation from at least one bank:.
Currently, commercial banks are regulated in most jurisdictions by government entities and require a special bank license to operate. Unlike most other regulated industries, the regulator is typically also a participant in the market, being either a publicly or privately governed central bank. Central banks also typically have a monopoly on the business of issuing banknotes. However, in some countries this is not the case. In the UK, for example, the Financial Services Authority licenses banks, and some commercial banks such as the Bank of Scotland issue their own banknotes in addition to those issued by the Bank of England , the UK government's central bank.
These implied contractual terms may be modified by express agreement between the customer and the bank. Some types of financial institution, such as building societies and credit unions , may be partly or wholly exempt from bank license requirements, and therefore regulated under separate rules. The requirements for the issue of a bank license vary between jurisdictions but typically include:. Most banks are profit-making, private enterprises.
However, some are owned by government, or are non-profit organizations. The United States banking industry is one of the most heavily regulated and guarded in the world,  with multiple specialized and focused regulators.
However, for soundness examinations i. State non-member banks are examined by the state agencies as well as the FDIC. Each regulatory agency has their own set of rules and regulations to which banks and thrifts must adhere. The Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council FFIEC was established in as a formal inter-agency body empowered to prescribe uniform principles, standards, and report forms for the federal examination of financial institutions.
Although the FFIEC has resulted in a greater degree of regulatory consistency between the agencies, the rules and regulations are constantly changing.
Offices have been closed, supervisory regions have been merged, staff levels have been reduced and budgets have been cut. The remaining regulators face an increased burden with increased workload and more banks per regulator. While banks struggle to keep up with the changes in the regulatory environment, regulators struggle to manage their workload and effectively regulate their banks. The impact of these changes is that banks are receiving less hands-on assessment by the regulators, less time spent with each institution, and the potential for more problems slipping through the cracks, potentially resulting in an overall increase in bank failures across the United States.
The changing economic environment has a significant impact on banks and thrifts as they struggle to effectively manage their interest rate spread in the face of low rates on loans, rate competition for deposits and the general market changes, industry trends and economic fluctuations.
It has been a challenge for banks to effectively set their growth strategies with the recent economic market. A rising interest rate environment may seem to help financial institutions, but the effect of the changes on consumers and businesses is not predictable and the challenge remains for banks to grow and effectively manage the spread to generate a return to their shareholders.
While always an issue for banks, declining asset quality has become a big problem for financial institutions. Problems are more likely to go undetected, resulting in a significant impact on the bank when they are discovered. In addition, banks, like any business, struggle to cut costs and have consequently eliminated certain expenses, such as adequate employee training programs. Banks also face a host of other challenges such as ageing ownership groups.
Banks also face ongoing pressure by shareholders, both public and private, to achieve earnings and growth projections. Regulators place added pressure on banks to manage the various categories of risk. Banking is also an extremely competitive industry.
Competing in the financial services industry has become tougher with the entrance of such players as insurance agencies, credit unions, cheque cashing services, credit card companies, etc. As a reaction, banks have developed their activities in financial instruments , through financial market operations such as brokerage and have become big players in such activities. To be able to provide home buyers and builders with the funds needed, banks must compete for deposits.
The phenomenon of disintermediation had to dollars moving from savings accounts and into direct market instruments such as U. Department of Treasury obligations, agency securities, and corporate debt. One of the greatest factors in recent years in the movement of deposits was the tremendous growth of money market funds whose higher interest rates attracted consumer deposits.
To compete for deposits, US savings institutions offer many different types of plans: Bank statements are accounting records produced by banks under the various accounting standards of the world. Under GAAP there are two kinds of accounts: Credit accounts are Revenue, Equity and Liabilities.
Debit Accounts are Assets and Expenses. The bank credits a credit account to increase its balance, and debits a credit account to decrease its balance. When the customer reads his bank statement, the statement will show a credit to the account for deposits, and debits for withdrawals of funds.
The customer with a positive balance will see this balance reflected as a credit balance on the bank statement. If the customer is overdrawn, he will have a negative balance, reflected as a debit balance on the bank statement. One source of deposits for banks is brokers who deposit large sums of money on behalf of investors through trust corporations. This money will generally go to the banks which offer the most favourable terms, often better than those offered local depositors.
It is possible for a bank to engage in business with no local deposits at all, all funds being brokered deposits.
Accepting a significant quantity of such deposits, or " hot money " as it is sometimes called, puts a bank in a difficult and sometimes risky position, as the funds must be lent or invested in a way that yields a return sufficient to pay the high interest being paid on the brokered deposits. This may result in risky decisions and even in eventual failure of the bank. Banks which failed during and in the United States during the global financial crisis had, on average, four times more brokered deposits as a percent of their deposits than the average bank.
Such deposits, combined with risky real estate investments, factored into the savings and loan crisis of the s. Regulation of brokered deposits is opposed by banks on the grounds that the practice can be a source of external funding to growing communities with insufficient local deposits.
Custodial accounts are accounts in which assets are held for a third party. For example, businesses that accept custody of funds for clients prior to their conversion, return or transfer may have a custodial account at a bank for this purposes. In modern time there has been huge reductions to the barriers of global competition in the banking industry.
Increases in telecommunications and other financial technologies, such as Bloomberg, have allowed banks to extend their reach all over the world, since they no longer have to be near customers to manage both their finances and their risk. The growth in cross-border activities has also increased the demand for banks that can provide various services across borders to different nationalities.
However, despite these reductions in barriers and growth in cross-border activities, the banking industry is nowhere near as globalized as some other industries. In the USA, for instance, very few banks even worry about the Riegle—Neal Act, which promotes more efficient interstate banking. In the vast majority of nations around the globe the market share for foreign owned banks is currently less than a tenth of all market shares for banks in a particular nation.
One reason the banking industry has not been fully globalized is that it is more convenient to have local banks provide loans to small business and individuals. On the other hand, for large corporations, it is not as important in what nation the bank is in, since the corporation's financial information is available around the globe. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bank disambiguation and Banker disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Banking in the United States. Retrieved 13 July Issues in Money and Banking. Praeger Publishers Greenwood Publishing Group. For a person a person to be known as a customer of the bank there must be either a current account or any sort of deposit account like saving, term deposit, recurring deposit, a loan account or some similar relation.
The relationship of banker and customer begins as soon as money or cheque is paid in and the bank accepts it and is prepared to open account. The word customer signifies a relationship in which duration is not of essence. A person whose money has been accepted by the banker on the footing that he undertakes to honour cheques unto the amount standing to his credit is a customer of the bank irrespective of whether his connection is short or long duration.
In this case the person is not a customer and never has been. If in this interval a banker has collected a cheque for the person, he may be at risk, for he cannot claim the statutory protection under the Negotiable Instrument Act. In very simple words the different banks have their own methods to verify the details of information given by the customers. If the verification by a bank is satisfactory the person who opened the account continues to be a customer but in case the verification done by a bank do not confirm the information provided by the person who has opened an account with a bank shall not be given the status of a customer even though bank has accepted money from him or has collected the amount of cheques submitted by him.
The prime factor is that a customer must identify him with all respects to get a status of a customer otherwise even after opening an account he will not be considered as a customer.
To be a customer of a bank it is must that a person must have an account with the bank whether in debit or credit is immaterial for this purpose. Mind it merely because a person visits the office of a bank for some transactions; say for purchasing of a draft or encashing of cheque etc. It is primarily aimed at the enforcement of the security interests besides securitization and reconstruction of the financials assets.
Please note this is meant for those who have taken any type of loan from banks. So far as SARFAESI is concerned it is a matter of law while most of the banks do function as per their prevalent practice that also tantamount to be a law.
Now you have, supposed, opened a Saving Account with a Bank and have legally become a customer of the bank. But there are many types of customers for a bank. Not to be specific but most of the customers of a bank are of different kinds.
Such type of accounts are maintained and operated upon only by the single person who has opened the account. This sole and single person is the customer of the bank.
There are many type of individuals like an educated person, illiterate person, an insane, an intoxicated an insolvent, a minor etc. Literate person is an educated one and can well understand the pros and cons of all laws and acts to protect himself.
He can therefore open all types of accounts in a bank. He being a literate person may be engaged in some important works and may not find time to transact banking business He can therefore authorize some other person to operate upon his accounts. Now an illiterate person cannot read and write. It is a general condition of all the banks that they must fill in a form required to open an account with a bank.
Usually such forms are meant to collect necessary information as per the KYC norms. In addition to this information most of the Account Opening forms do contain certain terms and conditions to be followed by the customers.
Besides the customers are also required some sort of obligations to take care of while operating their respective account An illiterate person must bring with him the pass book issued by the bank to confirm his credentials because in case of illiterate persons most of the bank paste a photograph of the account holder on the passbook.
It facilitates any banker to recognize his customer. Do you think these are possible for an illiterate person to understand? No An illiterate person cannot read and understand all these things written on account opening forms of different banks.
What is a possible solution to this problem? A simple way is that all these terms and conditions are read allowed and the meaning thereof is explained to the illiterate persons. In case they understand all these terms and conditions and also the meaning thereof his account can be opened with a bank.
But before opening the account of an illiterate person the Manager or some other official of the bank has to give a certificate to this effect that all the terms and conditions have been explained to the illiterate person and he after having understood these is willing to open an account with the bank.
Such a certificate is recorded on the account opening form and is also witnessed by some other person in whose presence these conditions were understood by an illiterate person. Now an illiterate person cannot sign. All banking transactions are based on the signatures.
Meaning and Definition of a Customer: There is no statutory definition of a customer, but banks appear to rely upon to recognize a customer: 1. For a person a person to be known as a customer of the bank there must be either a current account or any sort of deposit account like saving, term deposit, recurring deposit, a loan account or some similar relation. 2.
For a bank, a customer is a person who is utilizing one or more of the services provided by the bank. A customer is a person through whom the bank gets an opportunity to make an earning in return to the service they can provide the customer with.
Instead, describe the options that are tailored to meet the customer's specific needs. In-Person Customer Service Skills. While many people choose to use ATMs, direct deposit and mobile apps to handle their banking transactions, there are still people who prefer or feel safer, with in-person transactions. DEFINITION OF A BANKER AND A BANK CUSTOMER The law of banking is the law of the relationship between a banker and his customers. In essence, the Nigerian law of banking focuses on participants in the banking industry namely the banker and the customer.
A walk-in customer is a retail bank customer (don't confuse with investment banking, corporate banking, business banking, etc). There has been more focus on a 'walk-in' customer in recent history because of how the nature of banking has changed. Today’s Banking and Regulatory Environment Utah Bankers Association the bank’s complaint repository customer correspondence employees (regardless of department or physical location) Does the bank’s definition of complaints agree with regulatory expectations?